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In 1837, the personal union of the United Kingdom and Hanover ended because William IV's heir in the United Kingdom was female (Queen Victoria). Thus, Hanover passed to William IV's brother, Ernest Augustus, and remained a kingdom until 1866, when it was annexed by Prussia during the Austro-Prussian war.Despite Hanover being expected to defeat Prussia at the Battle of Langensalza, Prussia employed Moltke the Elder's Kesselschlacht order of battle to instead destroy the Hanoverian army.
Its electors would later become monarchs of Great Britain (and from 1801, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland).
From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover.
During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Hastenbeck was fought near the city on 26 July 1757.
Hanover is of national importance because of its universities and medical school, its international airport and its large zoo.
The city is also a major crossing point of railway lines and highways (Autobahnen), connecting European main lines in both the east-west (Berlin–Ruhr area) and north-south (Hamburg–Munich, etc.) directions. The German spelling (with a double n) is becoming more popular in English; recent editions of encyclopaedias prefer the German spelling, Hanover was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River Leine.After Napoleon imposed the Convention of Artlenburg (Convention of the Elbe) on July 5, 1803, about 35,000 French soldiers occupied Hanover.